候选人 A ：名牌大学毕业，绩点 4.0 ，完美的履历，出色的推荐信。
候选人 B ：非名牌大学毕业，辗转于各种工作之间，甚至做过收银员和服务生。
your company launches a search for an open position. The application starts rolling in and the qualified candidates are identified. Now the chossing begins.
Person A: IVY League4.0, flawless resume, great recommedations. All the right stuff.
候选人 A ：常春藤名校绩点 4.0 完美的简历，出色的推荐信。所有好的要素都具备。
Person B: Stateschool, fair amount of job hopping and odd jobs like cashier and singing waitress.
But remember—both arequalified. So I ask you: who are you going to pick?
My colleagues and Icreated very official terms to describe two distinct categories of candidates.
We call A “the silver spoon”, the one who clearly had advatages and was destined for success and we call B “the scrapper”, the one who had to fight against tremendous odds to get the samepoints. You just heard human resources director refer to people as silver spoons and scrappers, which is not exactly politically correct and sounds a bit judgemental. But before my human resources certification gets revoked--Let me explain.
我们把 A 称为含着“金钥匙”的人,一个明显具有优势而且注定会成功的人。我们把 B 称作拳击手，他必须努力冲破重重难关去达到相同的目标。你们刚刚听到了一个人力资源总监将应聘者比作金钥匙和拳击手，这听起来在政治上不太正确而且还有些武断，但是在我的人力资源证书被吊销前让我解释一下。
A resume tells a story. And over years, I’ve learned something about people whose experiences read like a patchwork quilt that makes me stop and fully consider before tossing their resume away.
A series odd jobs may indicate inconsisitency, lack of focus, unpredictability. Or it may signal acommitted struggle against obstacles. At the very least, the scrapper deserves an interview. To be clear, I don’t hold anything against the silver spoon getting into and graduating from an elite university takes a lot of hard workand sacrifice. But your whole life has been engineered toward success, how will you handle the tough time?
One person I hired felt that because he attented an elite university, there were certain assignments that were beneath him like temporarily doing manual labor to better understandan operation. Eventually, he quit. But on the flip side, what happens when your whole life is destined for failure and you actually succeed? I want to urge you to nterview the scrapper. I know a lot about this because I am a scrapper.
Before I was born, my father was diagnosed with paranold schizophrenia，and he couldn’t hold a job in spite of his brilliance. Our lives were one part “Cuckoo’s Nest”，one part “Awakenings”, and one part “A beautiful mind”. I am the fourth of five children raised by a single mother in arough neighborhod in Brooklyn, New York.
We never owned a home, a car, a washingmachine and for most of my childhood, we didn’t even have a telephone. I washifhly immotivated to understand the relationship between business success and scrappers because my life could easily have turned out very differently. As I met successful business people and read profiles of high-powered leaders.
I notice some commonality. Many of them had experienced early hardships，anywhere from poverty, abandonment, death of a parent while young, to learning disabilities, alcoholism and violence. The conventional thinking has been that trauma leads to distress and there’s been a lot of focus on the resulting dysfunction.
But during studies of dysfunction, data revealed an unexpected insight: that even the worst circumstances can result in growth and transformation. A remarkable and counterintuitive phenomenon has been discovered, which scientists call posttraumatic growth.
In one study designed to measure the effects of adversity on children at risk, among a subset of 698 children who experienced the most severe and extreme conditions, fully one-third grew up to lead healthy, successful and productive lives. In spite of everything and against tremendous odds, they succeeded. One third.
在一项设计用来衡量逆境对困苦的孩子会产生怎样影响的研究表明，在 698 位参与测试的孩子，在经历了最艰苦严苛的考验后，他们中的三分之一长大后获得了健康、成功以及丰富的人生。尽管经历了巨大的艰难，但最后还是成功了。三分之一那么多。
Take this resume. This guy’s parents give him up for adoption. He never finishes college. He job-hops quite a bit, goes on a sojourn to india for a year, and to top it off, he has dyslexia. Would hire this guy? His name is Steve Jobs.
In a study of the world’s most highly successful entrepreneurs, it turns out a disproportionate number have dyslexia. In the US, 35 percent of the entrepreneurs studied haddyslexia. What’s remarkable--among those entrepreneurs who experience posttraumatic growth, they now view their learning disability as a desirable difficulty whch provided them an advantage, because they bacame better listeners and paid greater attention to detail.
一个对全球最成功企业家群体的研究表明，相当数量的企业家有阅读障碍。在美国， 35% 的企业家有阅读障碍。更加值得注意的是—这些企业家中，那些经历过创后成长的人，成功后的他们将这样的学习障碍看作是值得经历的困难，这样的困难给予了他们优势，他们因此成为更好的听众，并且更加关注细节。
They don’t think they are who they are in spite of adversity, they know who they are because of adversity. They embrace their trauma and hardships as key elements of who they’ve become, and know that without those experiences, they might not have developed the muscle and grit required to become successful.
One of my colleagues had his life completely upended as a result of the chinese cultural revolution in 1966. At age of 13, his parents were relocated to the countryside, the school wereclosed, and he was left alone in Beijing to fend for himself until 16 when he got a job in a clothing factory.
我的一位同事因为中国 1966 年的文化大革命，他的人生彻底颠覆了。 13 岁那年，他的父母被下放农村。学校关闭了，而他独自在北京谋生直到 16 岁,他在服装厂找到了一份工作。
But instead of accepting his fate, he made a resolution that he could continue his formal education. Eleven years later,when the political landsccape changed, he heard about a highly selective university admisssions test. He had three months to learn the entire curriculum of middle and high school. So, every day he came home from the factory, took a nap, studied until 4.am, went back to work and repeated this cycle every day for three months.
与其接受自己的命运，他决心不如继续完成学业。 11 年后政治版图改变了，他听说了一个竞争相当激烈的大学入学考试。他只有三个月来学习整个初中和高中的课程。于是，每天他从工厂回家后，先睡一小觉，然后学习到凌晨四点，回去工厂工作，就这样日复一日过了整整三个月。
He did it, he succeed. His commitment to his education was unwavering and he never lost hope. Today, he holds a master degree and his daughters each have degrees from Cornell and Harvard.
Scrappers are propelled by the belief that the only person you have full control over is yourself. When things turns out not well, scrappers ask, “what can I do diferently to create a better result”. Scrappers have a sense of purpose that prevents them from giving up on themselves, kind of like if you’ve survived poverty, a crazy father and several muggings, you figure, “business is challenge? Really? Pieceof cake. I got this.”
And that reminds me--humor. Scrappers know that humor gets you through the tough times and laughter helps you change your perspective. And finally, they are relationships. People who overcome adversity don’t do it alone. Somewhere along the way, they find people who bring out the best in them and who are invested in their success. Having someone you can count on no matter what is essential to overcoming adversity.
I was lucky. In my first job after college, I didn’t have a car, so I carpooled across two bridges with a woman who was the president’s assistants. She watched me work, and encourage me to focus on my future and not dwell on my past.
Along the way, I have met many people who’ve provided me brutally honest feedback, advice and mentorship. These people don’t mind that I once worked as a singing waitress to help pay for college. I’ll leave you with one final, valuable insight.
Companies that arecommitted to diversity and inclusve practices tend to support scrappers and outperform their peers. According to diversity Inc, a study of their top 50 companies for diversity outperformed the S&P 500 by 25 percent. So back tomy origianal question, who are you going to bet on: silver spoon or scrapper？I say choose the underestimated contender, whose secret weaons are passion and purpose. Hire the scrapper.
最后再分享一个有价值的见解，那些致力于多样化和包容开放行为的公司更愿意去支持拳击手，让他们比同辈更出色。《多元化企业》杂志的运营表现超越了标准普尔 500 指数 25% 。那么回到我最初的问题，你将把赌注放在谁身上：金钥匙或拳击手？我会选择被低估的竞争者，他的秘密武器是激情和决心。请雇佣拳击手。